In recent years the new demands and challenges of the
information and knowledge society have intensified international
concern for the reform of educational systems and the
development of new strategies focused on the lifelong learning
of all citizens.
The new digital context in which our society finds itself has
brought with it the need to seek new technical and cognitive
skills that will enable us to solve problems and situations in
new environments. It is not just a matter of keeping up-to-date
with specific techniques: it is also important to re-think key
basic competences so that we can adapt to this constantly
For this reason, numerous institutions have developed new
educational models focused on lifelong learning and based on a
series of key competences for the twenty-first century,
involving new types of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are
necessary for self-fulfilment and self-development, social
inclusion, active citizenship, and employability.
The models of key competences for the 21st century that have
been developed in the last ten years are diverse and often
complementary. One of the competences most often repeated in the
various models is digital competence, which includes the ability
to activate the full range of skills involved in accessing,
creating, using and communicating multimedia messages using all
types of ICT tools effectively, creatively, critically,
reflectively and ethically.
Other skills, such as those related to learning and innovation
(creativity, critical thinking, etc.), those related to
self-development (self-management, initiative, entrepreneurship,
productivity, flexibility, etc.), and those related to
collaboration and teamwork are included in most models of key
competences for the twenty-first century.
What should be the next educational challenges for the future?
What key competences should be prioritized in this digital
society? What should be the strategy to achieve these key
competences for the 21st century and to promote lifelong